Well, there’s several different ways people look at subcultures. I use the model that the sociologist Kenneth Westhues put together. In it, he claims there’s basically seven characteristics of subcultural behavior:
1. Their relationships tend toward communism with a little “c.”
2. Their interpersonal relationships deviate from the nuclear family and monogamy.
3. They’re only marginally political.
4. They reject the rewards and status of mainstream society.
5. They look to tribal elders or spiritual leaders.
6. They believe that what they’re doing is superior to mainstream society, which they consider morally or philosophically bankrupt.
7. They exist apart from mainstream society by creating their own folkways, mores and ways of living.
But there’s also psychological ways of viewing subcultures. Read more.